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Diabetes means that your blood glucose (blood sugar) is too high. There are two main types of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes - the body does not make insulin. Insulin helps the body use glucose from food for energy. People with type 1 need to take insulin every day.
Type 2 diabetes - the body does not make or use insulin well. People with type 2 often need to take pills or insulin. Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes - occurs in some women when they become pregnant. It raises her future risk of developing diabetes, mostly type 2. It may raise her child's risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.

All people with diabetes need to make healthy food choices, stay at a healthy weight, and move more every day.

Taking good care of yourself and your diabetes can help you feel better. It may help you avoid health problems caused by diabetes such as:

Complications of Diabetes

→ heart attack and stroke
→ eye problems that can lead to trouble seeing or going blind
→ nerve damage that can cause your hands and feet to hurt, tingle, or feel numb. Some people
     may even lose a foot or a leg.
→ kidney problems that can cause your kidneys to stop working
→ gum disease and loss of teeth

When your blood glucose is close to normal you are likely to:
→ Have more energy.
→ Be less tired and thirsty and urinate less often.
→ Heal better and have fewer skin, or bladder infections.
→ Have fewer problems with your eyesight, feet, and gums.

Know your diabetes

Learn how to manage your A1C, Blood pressure, and Cholesterol. This can help lower your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes problems. Here's what the ABCs of diabetes stand for:
A for the A1C test (Glycosylated Hb)
It shows what your blood glucose has been over the last three months. The A1C goal for many people is below 7. High blood glucose can harm your heart and blood vessels, kidneys, feet, and eyes.

B for Blood pressure.
The goal for most people with diabetes is below 130/80.

High blood pressure makes your heart work too hard. It can cause heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease.
C for Cholesterol

The LDL goal for people with diabetes is below 100.
The HDL goal for men with diabetes is above 40.
The HDL goal for women with diabetes is about 50.

LDL or “bad” cholesterol can build up and clog your blood vessels. It can cause a heart attack or a stroke. HDL or “good” cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your blood vessels.

How to manage diabetes?


Many people avoid the long-term problems of diabetes by taking good care of them. Work with your health care team to reach your ABC target. Use this self-care plan.
→ Follow your diabetes meal plan.
→ Eat healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, fish, dry peas or beans, whole grains,
      and low-fat or skim milk.
→ Eat foods that have less fat and salt.
→ Eat foods with more fiber such as whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta.
→ Traditional Indian meal with some changes is the best diet.
→ Please take help of a dietician to plan your diet.
→ Get 30 to 60 minutes of physical activity on most days of the week. Brisk walking is a great way
      to move more.
→ Stay at a healthy weight by using your meal plan and moving more.
→ Learn to cope with stress. Stress can raise your blood glucose. While it is hard to remove stress from your life, you can learn to handle it.
→ Stop smoking.
→ Take medicines even when you feel good
→ Check your feet every day for cuts, blisters, red spots, and swelling.
→ Brush your teeth and floss every day to avoid problems with your mouth, teeth, or gums
→ Check your blood glucose. You may want to test it one or more times a day. It is important to check both fasting and post meal glucose after 2 hours on regular basis.The frequency of testing will be decided by your doctor.
→ Check your blood pressure on every visit to doctor.

Step 4: Get routine care.


See your health care team at least twice a year to find and treat any problems early.
At each visit be sure you have a:
→ blood pressure check
→ foot check
→ weight check
Two times each year have an:
→ A1C test - it may be checked more often if it is over 7 Once each year be sure you to get this things done: → Lipid Profile
→ Tests for kidney like Urine microalbumin
→ complete foot exam
→ dental exam to check teeth and gums - tell your dentist you have diabetes
→ dilated eye exam to check for eye problems
→ flu shot
→ urine and a blood test to check for kidney problems

DIABETES MELLITUS


Insulin secreted by the pancreas in a diabetic is inadequate to utilise the glucose in the blood. The glucose cannot be converted to energy and this leads to excessive blood sugar levels. This is dangerous as it can lead to serious complications.

Special Considerations


1. Maintain ideal body weight.
2. Eat measured quantities of cereal foods.
3. Fixed meal timings at short interval.
4. Eat about the same amounts of food each day.
5. Don't skip meals and medicine times.
6. Take your medicines at the same times each day.
7. Do not eat fast; masticate and munch your food well before you swallow.
8. Don't select ready to eat and junk foods items available to you.
9. Eat less fat, especially less saturated fat (found in butter, 2% or whole milk, ice cream, cheese, palm oil, coconut oil, trans fats, hydrogenated oils, fatty meats, poultry and shortening).
10. Eat less carbohydrate and fatty foods.
11. Eat plenty of high-fiber foods such as oatmeal, oat bran, dried beans and peas like kidney beans, fruits, vegetables and sprouted legumes. Include fresh vegetable salad in every meal.
12. Eat moderate amounts of citrus fruits and other low sweet fruits like papaya, guava, melon, pear and apple.
13. Eat less salt and sodium.
14. Don't fry foods instead bake, roast, grill, boil, poach or sauté in a nonstick pan. Steam or microwave vegetables.
15. Exercise at about the same times each day.
16. Do not eat immediately after a workout.
17. Take good sleep daily.
18. Check your blood sugar level regularly.

High glycemic index (“bad” carbs) Low glycemic index (“good” carbs)
white bread (rolls, biscuits) white potatoes
biscuits
white rice
sugary breakfast cereals
processed foods
refined cereals
soft drinks
fruit juices
refined sugar
whole-grain breads and cereals
whole-wheat products
brown rice
oatmeal
whole fruits
legumes (beans, peanuts, peas)
lentils
certain fruits (apples, apricots, peaches, pears, plums, oranges)